On Faith, Freedom of Expression, and the Muslim Brotherhood’s Statement in Response to the Protests in Egypt and Libya

Yesterday, Egypt’s ruling party, the Muslim Brotherhood, released a stern condemnation of a low-budget, poorly produced attempt at religious satire uploaded to YouTube by a coward hiding behind an alias. The Muslim Brotherhood also expressed disapproval of the vicious retaliatory protests that have led to the murder of four American diplomats in Libya, including the U.S. Ambassador, encouraging somewhat ambiguously:

“All Muslims to uphold and apply Quranic principles and emulate the Messenger of Allah.”

I understand the Egyptian government’s frustration. Unfortunately, the Muslim Brotherhood’s proposed solution only exacerbates the underlying problem that is quickly coming to the forefront in Egypt and around the world:

“We denounce abuse of all Messengers of God, Prophets and Apostles, and condemn this heinous crime. We further call for criminalization of assaults on the sanctities of all heavenly religions.”

The solution proposed by the Muslim Brotherhood is the prohibition of criticism (which they define as “assaults on the sanctities of all heavenly religions”) of all religions. However, categorizing criticism of any religion as “abuse” and as “heinous crimes” is not a viable solution in a free society. In fact, it would only serve to resurrect the totalitarian suppression of freedom of thought and expression that they experienced under Hosni Mubarak.

All individuals – both those who express faith in various deities and those choosing to adhere to no religion – should have the freedom to debate, criticize, and yes, joke and satirize all forms of ideology, including economic, political, and yes, religious.

The United States of America is founded upon this fundamental principle – the freedom of expression – as well as the freedom to worship or not worship any god we so choose. Freedom of expression lies at the heart of any free society. To exempt religion from this free expression, and to demand that no religious figure ever be criticized, rejected, satirized, or even questioned is little more than an attempt to exploit this horrific tragedy – the murder of American diplomats by Islamic protestors resulting from their anger over an insulting film on YouTube – to elevate Islam to a state that stands above criticism.

As a scholar and a professor of religious studies, I reject any attempt to quell the critical inquiry of any religion, including Christianity and Islam. While the parody of a religious figure may be considered an insult to some and a foolish act in poor taste to others, the solution is never, ever violence coupled with a call for the criminalization of the critique of religion.

Simply put, truly free citizens of any state should have the freedom to practice and profess the religion of their choice, but should not have the power to criminalize those who do not profess their religious faith.

The statement released by the Islamic Brotherhood further stated:

“Certainly, such attacks against sanctities do not fall under the freedom of opinion or thought. They are crimes and assaults against Muslim sanctities, and must not be tolerated by the countries where they are produced or launched, since they are also detrimental to the interests of those countries in dealings with the peoples of the Muslim world.”

The new definition of "religious persecution".

The new definition of “religious persecution”.

Evidently, the Muslim Brotherhood differentiates between freedom of thought and opinion regarding politics, economics, and perhaps where to eat dinner, and the freedom to critique, satirize, and even denounce certain religious beliefs and practices. This assumed privileged status of religion in Islamic countries is similar to the misguided assumption made by Christians in the United States. We must remember that there is a distinct difference between “religious persecution” and the challenging of the privileged status a particular religion enjoys in a given country, be it Christianity in the U.S. or Islam in Egypt.

The critique, ridicule, or rejection of a religious belief or ideology is no different than the critique, ridicule, or rejection of an economic or political belief or ideology: all involve the freedom to accept or reject in thought, word, or practice any position held within them. Religion cannot possess a privileged status above other forms of expression simply because someone else might find it offensive. Likewise, one religion should not enjoy exemption from critique over another religion in any country.

"Religious offense" is apparently a relative designation.

“Religious offense” is apparently a relative designation.

Freedom of expression must be preserved regardless of the subject matter, and regardless of the (over)sensitivity of those who might disagree with the expressed speech. This is especially true in nations that engage in vilifying other religious groups. It is patently hypocritical for the leaders of a government to insist that their religion be respected at all times, while arguing that the consistent denigration of another government with different religious beliefs (let’s say Israel for example) is perfectly legitimate. Perhaps this rational disconnect explains the puzzling, yet carefully worded portion of the Muslim Brotherhood’s statement that read:

The West has passed and imposed laws that punish those who deny or express dissident views on the Holocaust or question the number of Jews killed by Hitler, a topic which is purely historical, not a sacred doctrine.

One either believes in the freedom of thought, speech, and expression of political and religious beliefs, or one does not. One cannot argue that Islam (or Christianity or Judaism for that matter) are somehow uniquely exempt from another individual’s freedom to express thoughts and speech against them. Despite the fact that the creator of this low budget, miserable attempt at religious parody was cowardly enough to hide behind a pseudonym, his right to express his speech on YouTube – however foolish – must be protected. (However, if he forged, criminally impersonated, or stole the identity of another individual, or engaged in internet activity after being convicted of a crime and ordered not to do so, then obviously this is a criminal act. However, none of this has been alleged against the man hiding behind the alias ‘Sam Bacile’.)

The Muslim Brotherhood tepidly implied that Muslims should restrain their outrage at sleights against Islam to “peaceful and legal” means:

“The peoples and governments of the Muslim world have every right to condemn, with all peaceful and legal means, this new violation and heinous attack, and to take appropriate action to deter repeats of such acts of barbaric aggression.”

Any believer in the freedom of speech must understand the misguided nature of this statement, as it characterizes the production of a low budget film as a “heinous attack” and equates it with “acts of barbaric aggression”. The murder of diplomats is a “heinous attack” and an “act of barbaric aggression”. On the contrary, the production of a film is the exercise of one’s freedom to create an admittedly dreadful attempt at a Mel Brooks style, comically offensive parody and call it art. No one was killed in the production of this sloppily-made internet movie. The fact that the Muslim Brotherhood, as the representative leaders of Egypt, are even paying attention to this film as the impetus for anything other than the desperate need for acting lessons and courses in video and sound production demonstrates their inability to grasp the fundamental aspects of freedom of expression.

The Muslim Brotherhood concluded their statement with the following:

“While we reject and condemn the bloodshed and violent response to that abuse and the incredible tolerance certain countries show towards it, we cannot ignore the fact that these countries never made a move regarding the abuse until after the strong reaction seen across the Muslim world.”

They continue:

“Those who insult the sanctities wish to poison budding relations between the peoples, to disrupt the efforts to build bridges between civilizations, and to sow discord between the peoples.”

Again, if the Muslim Brotherhood continues to equate the verbal or acted criticism via parody of a deeply held belief as an “act of aggression”, then we should not hold out much hope for a truly democratic, truly free Egypt under the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood. If insulting the tenets of a religious faith can somehow be construed as a legitimate reason for bloodshed – whether officially endorsed by the government or not – then we cannot consider any person, group, or government adhering to such an unbalanced system of justice in any way “free”.

Perhaps the most telling (and certainly most discouraging) comment came at the heart of the statement, as the Muslim Brotherhood attempted to, in a sense, excuse, or at least defend the response of the riotous Egyptian crowds:

“Thus hurting the feelings of one and a half billion Muslims cannot be tolerated…”

The fact is, they must. Hurt feelings must be tolerated if the ideal of the freedom of expression in a free, democratically elected state is going to survive. All peoples – including Christians in the United States and Muslims in Arab nations – must learn that insults are one of the unfortunate byproducts of the freedom of expression. Those who have chosen to live in free nations simply cannot afford to be overly sensitive to perceived sleights – especially to their religion – as others have the right to freely express their disapproval of beliefs held by others.

Unfortunately, in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, there are often those who seek out occasions to respond aggressively to simple words spoken against their religion. They seek out opportunities to take offense at religious criticism with the hopes of gaining a political advantage over those with whom they happen to disagree. And while no one wants to live in a world full of insults and negativity, we cannot discard our fundamental freedom of expression simply to preserve the overly-sensitive, politically opportunistic few who seek to elevate their religious beliefs above others’ freedom to express disapproval.

The newly elected leadership in Egypt has a profound decision to make. Does it retreat to the fascist, totalitarian dictates of the Mubarak regime, which suppressed the voices of millions who simply wanted their protests to be heard without fear of reprisal, or does it embrace the democratic freedoms that allowed Egypt to elect its first democratically elected president, even though it may mean having to tolerate dissenting opinions, critiques, parodies, and yes, even insults in the process of preserving the freedom of ideological, economic, and religious expression that are the hallmarks of great societies?

We must watch how the Muslim Brotherhood responds to criticism – both of their authority and of Islam. Should they choose to ignore petty insults made by anonymous cowards on the internet and focus upon leading a great nation with dignity and honor and fairness toward all peoples, then they will be lauded now and throughout history as evidence that democratically elected Islamic political parties can successfully lead a modern, secular state. But, should they continue to incite violence and condemn any and all who would critique their rule, their economic policies, or their religion, then they will simply be remembered as one more failed Islamic regime that was more concerned with defending the honor of their religion than they were with conducting the official business of the state and overseeing the benevolent government of its people.

The choice is theirs. And the American government’s response should depend upon this choice. Should the Muslim Brotherhood choose to defend the freedom of expression, then Egypt should continue to enjoy the privilege of strong U.S. support as true allies, and the financial support that comes with it. But should the Muslim Brotherhood choose Islamic fundamentalism and to defend a religion against petty insults at the expense of freedom of expression and fundamental rules of diplomacy, then the U.S. must consider treating Egypt as any other totalitarian religious regime and withdraw its political, military, and financial support.


Dr. Robert R. Cargill is Assistant Professor of Classics and Religious Studies at the University of Iowa. He earned his Ph.D. in Near Eastern Languages and Cultures at UCLA. He presently teaches a course on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam and also teaches courses on the History of Jerusalem and Mythology of Otherworldly Journeys.

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16 Responses

  1. I don’t have any patience with any religion that gets “offended” by criticism or “offensive” speech.

    Muslims today are at a stage where Christians were a few hundred years ago … before the Treaty of Westphalia, before rulers and parliaments decided that the best way to deal with the fact that their subjects professed more than one version of “Christian truth” was to ensure that the SECULAR LAW ensured that no one would be subjected to violence for their beliefs. In short, it was a was for governments to “keep the peace”.

    Christian extremists today would LOVE to return to a day when people who criticized them would be put into jail, tortured, then turned over the civil authorities to be burned at the stake.

    It was SECULAR LAW that barred violence against “the wrong kind of Christians” (whose definition depended on which jurisdiction one was in) that whupped Christians into line, period. Christian extremists are STILL mad about that.

  2. Thanks, Bob, well said.

    It’s really so simple: To have freedom of speech means that people must be allowed to say things that offend other people. Speech that doesn’t offend anybody doesn’t need protection.

    What I’d like to see, just once, is for a religious leader to stand up and say, “Our beliefs are true, and our faith is strong. The only appropriate response to authors of this provocation is to laugh at their low opinion of us.” What they’re showing us instead is that their faith is weak, if this film clip is all it takes to threaten it.

    I suspect that, once again, ignorant and fearful mobs are being manipulated into violence by the unscrupulous few, for their own ends. Whether the Egyptian government should be counted among the mob, or the few, I can’t tell.

  3. Well thought out, enlightening, and informative. Thank you for making sense out of a disturbing theological mess for me.

  4. Dr. Cargill
    Excellent post! You have succinctly summarized many of the thoughts I have rollig around my mind. Especially, The MB’s Hasty Generalization about “The West has imposed laws…” Some European countries in the West have, the US is not one of them.
    Great Post, Keep up the good work!

  5. and this is usually where i repost nonstampcollector’s classic video exploring the idea of ‘offensive’ speech in religion:

  6. It was not very long ago that one political party wanted to make it a crime to burn the American flag.

  7. Very well said.

  8. Somebody needs to let the Islamic world know that by their extreme reactions to all these slights against their religion and religious figures, they simply prove that even they know it’s a really stupid religion. The only way they can prop it up is with violence. Sad, if you weed through everything in the Koran, there are some good things, just like the Bible. Takes a lot of weeding however.

  9. This is indeed and reasonable post!

    I just wish, every group, ethnic, religious, moral or political would learn how to take criticism, satire and jokes and not equate it to hate. Hate can be manifested in criticism, satire and jokes, but not all forms of these is hate, or blasphemy, or discrimination or whatever label we may affix to someone else’s opposing view; and certainly none of these justify murder.

  10. There are some other political and economic factors that also interface with the spiritual, social, institutional issues that you describe here. In late Aug of this year, Egypt requested a $4.8 billion loan from the IMF. Yet many Egyptians expressed anxiety over the negotiations’ lack of transparency and the possibility that the Egyptian government could agree to onerous conditions that may force it to cut back on spending on social welfare and safety nets. They’ve also opened up diplomatic talks with Iran for the first time in a very long time. The Muslin Brotherhood’s statement, while intolerant by Western standards, does condemn the attacks (keeping the West barely happy) while reinforcing broad cultural, spiritual, and moral values (keeping a great number of voters in country happy). I see the statement as an attempt both please the West and the people that gave the Brotherhood their mandate. Unfortunately there is a civil rights trade off: religious tolerance. More than backsliding into totalitarianism, I think this is about capturing strategic and practical wins in foreign and domestic policy, while maintaining their legitimacy. Hopefully in the future there will be no trade offs with religious liberties.

  11. Great post – I linked to it on Facebook. I have thought for a while ago that the Muslims are a couple hundred years behind us in the way they approach things.

    The big issue I see is that I am not sure if there is any sign of the Islamic world (at least the Middle Eastern radical part) moving away from these type of viewpoint anytime soon. If they don’t move how do we ever solve the situation? Our attempts to placate and win their hearts and minds is obviously not working. To mete trend line looks like it is getting worse not better with time. Maybe we should stop trying to treat them like modern societies? Maybe we should concentrate on breaking the will of the extremists even if it means collateral damage?

    I am also wondering why we are showing such restraint when they are attacking the embassy gates or breaching the walls (Tunis today). To me those are the points when you switch from non-lethal to lethal responses.

  12. Andrew:

    Are you trying to justify the deaths of innocent civilians (“collateral damage”) in the name of some sort of religious/political goal ?

    BTW, if you are a member of a church denomination, this would be a good time to identify it.

    Those who “can’t handle” a stupid movie trailer are a bunch of religious crybabies, but … I can’t justify killing innocent civilians because of the reaction of religious crybabies to a movie trailer. . . . Back when I was religious I could justify ANYthing (of course).

  13. I am not trying to justify the death of anyone. What I am saying is that I think we are worrying too much about the non-combatants when we do military strikes. I won’t call them innocent as I am not convinced they are. Non-combatants often provide vital intelligence and logistic support to the combatants.

    The statement was more in relation to the wider war against Islamic extremists. I think we need to start approaching it more in the way we did Germany / Japan than this winning hearts and minds BS. Break their will to resist and then work on reconciliation / rebuilding.

    I was not suggesting we start killing the protesters. Outside of the embassies it is totally up to the host nation to take whatever actions they deem appropriate. I think they should be allowed to demonstrate as long as they do it peacefully. However as soon as they start hanging on the gates / branching the walls, I think we should respond with lethal force. It is an invasion of US soil then and should be treated as such.

    I am Roman Catholic.

  14. John Stuart Mill said it all in his great Essay on Liberty written 150 years ago. When he said that offense was not a harm.

  15. [...] said in the past (here and here and here) that “there is a difference between persecution and the loss of privileged [...]

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